After 30 years of armed struggle for independence, Eritrea enjoyed only seven years of peace and stability before another war with neighboring Ethiopia resumed in May 1998. In this short peaceful interval, tremendous efforts were made to establish and develop the basic institutions of the new state that is, rebuilding the infrastructure and rehabilitating the social and economic basses.
Unfortunately, with the return of a war these achievements had been to a large extent reversed. The reversal of positive development in general applies to all sectors but has taxed the youth highly especially the youth who were mobilized/remobilized and armed. Currently more than 230,000 - 250,000 soldiers are under arms out of which the majorities are youngsters. Present Eritrea offers a rare opportunity to probe and examine the two demobilization and reintegration exercises occurring within a decade and its social and economic impact in the same country but in very different political context.