In 1951, the international community made a significant step with the introduction of United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which was an international law that aimed to protect those who had become stateless and therefore faced a unique set of vulnerabilities and difficulties. As the nature of conflict has changed over the years, so have the types of humanitarian and human rights challenges that the international community face. The number of refugees has decreased to roughly 9.2 million people, the lowest figure in 25 years; while a new category, internally displaced persons (IDPs) has arisen. An IDP often flees his/her home for the same reasons as a refugee - national disaster, terrorism, persecution and violence. Yet they do not enjoy the same legal protection as refugees because they remain within their country of origin and do not cross the borders of their country. Currently, these is an estimated 25 million IDPs in over 52 countries.
The East African state of Sudan hosts more than a quarter of IDPs population in the world. The protracted conflicts that have engulfed the state since its independence in 1956 are a major cause of the increase in the IDP population in Sudan. That are about 6 million IDPs in the country and this is incomparable with situations in other countries.